The planet Jupiter was named after the Roman God Jupiter which follows the nomenclature of the other planets as well. This planet is placed in the fifth position from the Sun in the Solar System and is one of the largest planets in the Solar system as well. Jupiter is categorized as a gas giant together with the other three planets which are Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These four planets are also identified as the Jovian planets.
Since Jupiter is one of the four gas giants, it is therefore not made up of solid matters. With a diameter of 142,984 km at the equator, the density of this planet is therefore calculated to be at 1.326 g/cm³. The upper atmosphere of this planet consists mostly of around 88 – 92% hydrogen and 8 – 12% helium by percent volume or fraction of gas molecules.
Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, the composition changes when described in terms of the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus the atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.
Since Jupiter is the only planet which has a centre mass similar to the Sun, it could therefore radiate heat out. Thus it gives out more heat that it absorbs. It completes its orbit around the Sun in 11.86 years and with an axial tilt of 3.13 degrees, this planet does not experience any significant seasonal changes.